dates de séjour
projet de recherche
Homicides in Manchu Banners. A Research Based on the First Historical Archives in Beijing
Qing Dynasty was the last dynasty in Chinese history. Manchus originally were riders from the deep forest in the North-East of China, who conquered and controlled territories as large as Europe for almost 300 years. Manchu people were grouped in “banners”, which were crucial as military force for conquest and and long-term duration of the Qing Empire, hence privileges that identified Banner people from the common Chinese population. Banner people indeed included various ethnic minorities, not only ethnic Manchus, but also Mongolians, Koreans, Russians, Tibetans and even some Europeans, garrisoned in Beijing and some of the 18 provinces. They were different from the surrounding Chinese population by their language, their dress, and other cultural traits, and all of them tended to be designed indistinctly as “Banner people” with time. As professional soldiers with hereditary status, they were not authorized, by principle, to exert any other activity than soldiery, which became a cause of gradual pauperization for most of them. But in social status, the banner people were special no matter they were wealthy or not. Although Manchu rulers repeatedly claimed that “Banner people and Chinese people were equal ”, their special status consistently raised the issue this research project is intended to examine: Did Banner people enjoy significant privileges in Qing law? This project will focus on more than 2500 cases of homicides of which either the perpetrator or the victim was a Bannerman. I collected these cases in the archives of the Board of Punishment (Xingbu), which has been recently opened in the First Historical Archives in Beijing. The archive I am using are written in Chinese and Manchu, two languages I am able to read, which allows to compare different versions and points of view. Thanks to my position as a researcher in the Manchu Language institute of Beijing Academy of Sciences, I could manage a special access to documents and to obtain scans of them (see detail below). Combining statistics with historical analysis, I intend to develop a “banner people homicide cases database,” which will document three questions: 1. What did so-called “Banner legal privileges” exactly consisted of, and what was their influence on judicial decisions? 2. What were the main causes of conflict between Banner people and Chinese commoners? 3. How did Chinese traditional law deal with ethnic identities?
DR.Guan Xiaojing is currently a research fellow at the Manchu Study Institution, Beijing Academy of Social Sciences. She received her Ph.D. from Chinese Academy of Social Sciences in History. Guan put her major research interests in the Manchu history, culture and the Bannerman society in Qing Dynasty, with the diversion topics : Religionship of the Bammerman, temple inscriptions in Manchu language, Manchu-Han relationship in garrison eight-banner cities in Qing dynasty, etc.. Her recent publications are : The Temple Inscriptions in Manchu Language in Early Qing Dynasty Beijing (2014), The God System and Characteristic of Temples in Garrision Eight-Banner Cities (2014), The Ancestor Temple of Bannerman in Qing Dynasty Beijing .(2013)
She has come to IAO for conferences on the Banner system, and for participating to the research project “Legalizing Space in China”, headed by Jérôme Bourgon.